With the advancement of tools and technology, the scientific community has made successful discoveries and powerful observations. Through the use of an improved method of light microscopy, one can view tissue samples at higher magnification and with greater detail than has every been possible before. This new technique allows for observations that may have once been obscured by material and instrumentation limitations. The corresponding images to the following arguments can be found on the Gallery page of this website.
All specimens were processed using standard protocol with the addition of Ultralight Histology's Pristine Artifact Preventer in order to eliminate artifacts during tissue preparation and maximize morphological detail. Tissues were stained using a hematoxylin and eosin routine, unless otherwise noted, and all were formalin fixed, paraffin embedded. After processing, pattern of chromatin (epigenetic) packaging was analyzed at 1000-1600x. These phylogenetic and histological observances indicated a predominant binary feature of chromatin in daughter cells. Once identified, these differences were then interrogated with antibodies against modified histone tails.
Specimen samples from fifty unrelated plant and animal species have been processed using the Ultralight approach. Every tested species exhibited the light and dark cell phenomenon. Therefore, the two daughter types are an integral element to basic cellular behavior.
The observed cells demonstrated three main areas of asymmetry among pairs:
1. Granulation of cytoplasm
2. Size differences in both nuclei and entire cell
3. Chromatin clumping differences: location, size, and amount
Smaller, lighter cells had denser chromatin clumps around the nuclear membrane whereas larger, darker cells contained less promounced clumps in the nucleus' interior. After observing multiple samples from fifty different species, no exception to the above finding existed.
H1 antibodies show variability in expression during mitosis. Antibodies phosphorylated Histone H1 (H1PO4) demonstrated asymmetrical staining of chromosome sets from prophase through telophase. H1 binding antibodies were used to demonstrate chromatin density.
H4K16 antibodies show differential staining of daughter cell nuclei during interphase and mitosis and differentially stained chromosome sets during mitosis. In order to examine cellular chromatin density during interphase, histone H4 antibodies binding to Lysine 16 were used. As with the H1 experiment mentioned above, these cells also displayed variance in expression between cells. Tissue samples also contained equal amounts of darker and lighter stained cells, which indicate that both light and dark phenotypes divide at regular intervals.
Within the "paired population", there is a differentiation of viral expression. Skin cells were infected with Molluscum Contagiosum. Using hemotoxylin and eosin staining, each cell's susceptibility to the virus was then analyzed. Within the same tissue type, one half of cells were significantly more infected. Furthermore, those cells that were infected had darker chromatin density patterns while the lighter cells contained little to no virus particles.
Asymmetrical cells consistently pair together after the sudden collapse of the z-axis. Otherwise known as the crash test, this experiment was designed to test the spatial relationship of cells. By impacting insects onto a glass slide at high velocities, a repeatable pattern of spatial entanglement was observed. Cells were stained with either a hematoxylin and eosin routine or H4K16 antibodies and viewed using light microscopy. In each case, cells separated into pairs which always contained different chromatin densities between the paired cells.